Passive Voice (Edilgen Yapı)

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passive yapı passive voice alıştırmaları voice edilgen yapı alıştırmalar be able to
EDİLGEN YAPI (= PASSIVE)


1. KULLANIM
İngilizcede passive yapı be + V3 yapısı ile olur. Be yüklemi tümcenin zamanına uygun olarak am, is, are, was, were, be, been hallerinden birini alır. Türkçede ise edilgen yapı "yüklem + -Il/In" yapısı ile oluşturulur.


2. ZAMANLAR VE YARDIMCI YÜKLEMLERDE PASSIVE

Simple Present
English is spoken in many countries.

İngilizce bir çok ülkede konuşulmakta.
Present Continuous
The house is being decorated.


Present Perfect
She has been informed.


Present Perfect Continuous
The research has been being done. (Kullanılmaz!)
Simple Past
I was informed.


Past Continuous
I was being followed.


Past Perfect
He had been misunderstood.


Past Perfect Continuous
I had been being questioned for hours. (Kullanılmaz!)

Future
will
It will be completed on time.


going to
They are going to be invited.


continuous
You will be being informed soon. (Kullanılmaz!)

perfect
It will have been opened by next week.


Modal verbs
can + be + V3
could + be + V3
had better + be + V3
have to + be + V3
may + be + V3
might + be + V3
must + be + V3
need to + be + V3
ought to + be + V3
shall + be + V3
should + be + V3
used to + be + V3
would + be + V3
would rather + be + V3


Compulsary military service can be abolished in the near future.
A. Askerlik yakın gelecekte zorunlu hizmet olmaktan çıkarılabilir.
B. Yakın gelecekte zorunlu askerlik hizmeti kaldırılabilir.
C. Zorunlu askerlik hizmeti yakında kaldırılacak.
D. Zorunlu askerlik hizmeti yakın gelecekte kaldırılabilmeli
E. Zorunlu askerlik hizmetini kaldırılması yakın geleceğe kaldı.

She ..... better instructions about the project; then, she wouldn't have made these mistakes.
A. must gave given
B. ought to be given
C. should have been given
D. was able to give
E. was given
 
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Cevap: Passive Voice (Edilgen Yapı)

3. PASSIVE ANLAM TAŞIYAN YÜKLEMLER

Bazı yüklemler, tümceye göre, passive anlam taşıyarak kullanılabilirler.
Your report reads well.


The new Ford is selling badly.


It is a nice material, but it doesn't wash.


Şu kullanıma dikkat:

prove possible/difficult/.. = be + proved possible/difficult/...


4. ACTIVE TÜMCENİN NESNESİNİN BİR CLAUSE OLMASI
Örneklerde de görüleceği gibi, active bir tümcenin nesnesinin bir clause olması durumunda
People believed (that) the witches communicated with the devil.


bu tümce çeşitli durumlarda passive yapılabilir.
It was believed that the witches communicated with the devil.


The witches were believed to communicate with the devil.


That the witches communicated with the devil was believed.


Bu tür passive tümcelere bir diğer örnek:
Nobody knew whether he was telling the truth.


It was not known whether he was telling the truth.


Whether he was telling the truth was not known.


5. INFINITIVE YAPININ PASSIVE HALİ
5.1. be to + passive
a) Gereksinim
These carpets are to be cleaned regularly. (=should be cleaned)


This form is to be filled in in ink.


There is a lot of work to be done.


Mars is the first planet ......
A. to discover
B. to be discovered
C. was discovered
D. been discovered
E. to be discovering

b) will anlamında
An offer as generous as this one is not to be refused.


5.2. be + to be seen / found / congratulated
He was nowhere to be seen.


The dog was nowhere to be found.


5.3. be + to blame yapısı be + to be blamed anlamında
Nobody is to blame for the accident.


5.4. anything / nothing + to do / to be done
There is nothing to do.


There is nothing to be done.


5.5. supposed to
I am supposed to be at home
gibi bir tümce iki tamamen farklı anlam taşıyabilir:
[1] = Everyone supposes that I'm at home.
[2] = I should be at home now.
Uygun anlam "bağlam" yolu ile anlaşılabilir.

5.6. to have been + V3
to have been + V
3 yapısı perfect / past anlam taşıdığından
I would like to be invited
tümcesi Türkçeye
Davet edilmeyi isterim. / Keşke davet edilsem
şeklinde aktarılabilirken,
I would like to have been invited
tümcesi
Davet edilmiş olmayı isterdim. / Keşke beni davet etselerdi
şeklinde Türkçeye aktarılabilir.

Mr Anderson is thought to ..... because there is no apparent reason why he should commit suicide.
A. be killing
B. kill
C. have killed
D. have been killed
E. have been killing

5.7. get + (nesne) + V3
İngilizcede edilgen yapıda be + V3 yerine get + V3 kullanılabilmektedir.
How did the window get broken ?


His money got stolen.
 
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